The word gratitude is derived from the Latin word gratia, which means grace, graciousness, or gratefulness.
In some ways gratitude encompasses all of these meanings. Gratitude is a thankful appreciation for what you receive, whether tangible or intangible. With gratitude, you can acknowledge the goodness in your life. In the process, you usually recognize that the source of that goodness lies at least partially outside of yourself.
As a result, gratitude also helps you connect to something larger than yourself as an individual — whether to other people, nature, or a higher power.
In psychology, gratitude is strongly and consistently associated with more happiness. Gratitude helps you to feel more positive emotions, relish good experiences, improve your health, manage anxiety, and build strong relationships.
You can experience and express gratitude in multiple ways. You can apply it to the past (retrieving positive memories and being thankful for elements of childhood or past blessings), the present (not taking good fortune for granted as it comes), and the future (maintaining a hopeful and optimistic attitude). Regardless of the inherent or current level of your gratitude, it's a quality that you can cultivate.
Research on gratitude
Psychologists, Dr. Robert A. Emmons of the University of California, Davis, and Dr. Michael E. McCullough of the University of Miami, have done much of the research on gratitude. In one study, they asked all participants to write a few sentences each week, focusing on particular topics.
One group wrote about things they were grateful for that had occurred during the week. A second group wrote about daily irritations or things that had displeased them, and the third wrote about events that had affected them (with no emphasis on them being positive or negative).
After 10 weeks, those who wrote about gratitude were more optimistic and felt better about their lives. Surprisingly, they also exercised more and had fewer visits to physicians than those who focused on sources of aggravation.
Another leading researcher in this field, Dr. Martin E. P. Seligman, a psychologist at the University of Pennsylvania, tested the impact of various positive psychology interventions on 411 people, each compared with a control assignment of writing about early memories. When their week's assignment was to write and personally deliver a letter of gratitude to someone who had never been properly thanked for his or her kindness, participants immediately exhibited a huge increase in happiness scores. This impact was greater than that from any other intervention, with benefits lasting for a month.
Other studies have looked at how gratitude can improve relationships. For example, a study of couples found that individuals who took time to express gratitude for their partner not only felt more positive toward the other person but also felt more comfortable expressing concerns about their relationship.
Ways to cultivate gratitude
Gratitude is a way for you to appreciate what you have instead of always reaching for something new in the hopes it will make you happier, or thinking you can't feel satisfied until every physical and material need is met.
Gratitude helps refocus on what you have instead of what you lack. And, although it may feel awkward at first, this mental state grows stronger with use and practice.
Here are some ways to cultivate gratitude on a daily basis.
Write a thank-you note. You can make yourself happier and nurture your relationship with another person by writing a thank-you letter expressing your enjoyment and appreciation of that person's impact on your life. Send it, or better yet, deliver and read it in person if possible. Make a habit of sending at least one gratitude letter a month. Once in a while, write one to yourself.
Thank someone mentally. No time to write? It may help just to think about someone who has done something nice for you, and mentally thank the individual.
Keep a gratitude journal. Make it a habit to write down or share with a loved one thoughts about the gifts you've received each day.
Count your blessings. Pick a time every week to sit down and write about your blessings — reflecting on what went right or what you are grateful for. Sometimes it helps to pick a number — such as three to five things — that you will identify each week. As you write, be specific and think about the sensations you felt when something good happened to you.
Pray. People who are religious can use prayer to cultivate gratitude.
Meditate. Mindfulness meditation involves focusing on the present moment without judgment. Although people often focus on a word or phrase (such as "peace"), it is also possible to focus on what you're grateful for (the warmth of the sun, morning coffee etc.)